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Table 1 General characteristics according to the presence of heart failure in atrial fibrillation

From: Characteristics of symptom burden in atrial fibrillation with concomitant heart failure

No. of patients
n = 4885
No HFHFp value
n = 4322n = 563
Age, years67.2 ± 10.769.3 ± 11.0< 0.001
 Age ≥ 652686 (62.1%)388 (68.9%)0.002
Sex  0.603
 Female1579 (36.5%)212 (37.7%) 
 Male2743 (63.5%)351 (62.3%) 
BMI (kg/m2)24.7 ± 3.424.6 ± 3.70.503
CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 23141 (72.7%)525 (93.3%)< 0.001
HAS-BLED score ≥ 31046 (24.2%)161 (28.6%)0.025
Hypertension2964 (68.6%)401 (71.2%)0.209
Diabetes mellitus1089 (25.2%)171 (30.4%)0.009
Dyslipidemia1590 (36.8%)205 (36.4%)0.553
Myocardial infarction93 (2.2%)44 (7.8%)< 0.001*
Stroke history719 (16.6%)109 (19.4%)0.107
Cancer490 (11.3%)54 (9.6%)0.227
PAD212 (4.9%)53 (9.4%)0.002
CKD (eGFR < 60)434 (10.0%)85 (15.1%)< 0.001
ESRD on dialysis75 (1.6%)6 (1.1%)0.294*
Permanent pacemaker278 (6.4%)48 (8.5%)0.072
ICD17 (0.4%)33 (5.9%)< 0.001*
Alcohol drinking  0.045
 Current945 (22.0%)106 (18.9%) 
 Social340 (7.9%)34 (6.0%) 
 Never3014 (70.1%)422 (75.1%) 
Smoking  0.027
 Current363 (8.4%)64 (11.4%) 
 Former1002 (23.2%)140 (24.9%) 
 Never2957 (68.4%)359 (63.8%) 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)122.2 ± 14.7120.2 ± 16.60.002
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74.6 ± 11.173.0 ± 12.60.002
Heart rate (bpm)74.7 ± 15.678.5 ± 17.9< 0.001
AF pattern  < 0.001
 Paroxysmal2851 (66.0%)265 (47.1%) 
 Persistent1290 (29.8%)240 (42.6%) 
 Permanent181 (4.2%)58 (10.3%) 
AF documentation  0.840
 Newly diagnosed206 (4.8%)26 (4.6%) 
 Within 3 months353 (8.2%)50 (8.9%) 
 Above 3 months3763 (87.1%)487 (86.5%) 
Echocardiography   
 EF (%)63.6 ± 6.247.7 ± 13.6< 0.001
 < 40163 (29.0%) 
 40–50152 (27.0%) 
 > 504322 (100%)248 (44.0%) 
 LA size (mm)43.3 ± 7.747.3 ± 8.8< 0.001
 E/e′ ratio11.4 ± 5.014.2 ± 6.6< 0.001
Electrocardiography   
Sinus rhythm2236 (51.8%)187 (33.2%)< 0.001
 QRS duration (ms)98.6 ± 19.3103.6 ± 24.7< 0.001
 Corrected QT interval (ms)439.7 ± 32.9452.0 ± 40.0< 0.001
  1. Numerical variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and categorical variables are represented as the absolute value with the percentage in parentheses
  2. Fisher’s exact test (*)
  3. AF atrial fibrillation, BMI body mass index, CKD chronic kidney disease, EF ejection fraction, ESRD end-stage renal disease, ICD implantable cardiac defibrillator, LA left atrium, PAD peripheral artery disease