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Table 2 Treatment strategies according to the presence of heart failure

From: Characteristics of symptom burden in atrial fibrillation with concomitant heart failure

No. of patients
n = 4885
No HFHFp value
n = 4322n = 563
Pharmacologic treatment
ARB or ACEi1627 (37.7%)389 (69.5%)< 0.001
Beta blocker2163 (50.1%)378 (67.5%)< 0.001
Non-DHP CCB1322 (30.6%)136 (24.3%)0.002
Digoxin235 (5.4%)104 (18.6%)< 0.001
Statin1501 (34.7%)241 (43.0%)< 0.001
AF treatment strategy  < 0.001
 Rhythm control2129 (49.3%)201 (35.7%) 
 Rate control only1564 (36.2%)317 (56.3%) 
 None629 (14.6%)45 (8.0%) 
Non-pharmacological AF treatment   
 Catheter ablation809 (18.7%)83 (14.8%)0.023
 Electrical cardioversion748 (17.3%)131 (23.3%)0.001
Stroke prevention
CHA2DS2-VASc ≤ 1  0.095*
 None797 (67.5%)20 (52.6%) 
 Anti-platelet agents22 (1.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Oral anticoagulants362 (30.7%)18 (47.4%) 
CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2  0.030*
 None550 (17.5%)72 (13.7%) 
 Anti-platelet agents13 (0.4%)0 (0.0%) 
 Oral anticoagulants2578 (82.1%)453 (86.3%) 
  1. ACEi angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, AF atrial fibrillation, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, Non-DHP CCB non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker
  2. Categorical variables are represented as the absolute value with the percentage in parentheses. Fisher’s exact test (*)