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Table 3 Deterministic factors related to symptoms according to the presence of heart failure in atrial fibrillation

From: Characteristics of symptom burden in atrial fibrillation with concomitant heart failure

 No HFHF
Adjusted OR (95% CI)p valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p value
Age ≥ 65 yearsNot selected Not selected 
Female1.52 (1.33–1.73)< 0.001Not selected 
BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2Not selected Not selected 
CHADS-VASc ≥ 2Not selected Not selected 
PAF versus PmAF2.18 (1.42–3.35)< 0.001Not selected 
PeAF versus PmAF1.75 (1.13–2.72)0.013Not selected 
Heart rate ≥ 100 bpm1.54 (1.18–2.01)0.0011.92 (1.07–3.43)0.028
Sinus rhythm at ECGNot selected 0.64 (0.43–0.97)0.033
QRS duration ≥ 120 msNot selected Not selected 
QTc interval ≥ 480 msNot selected Not selected 
HFmrEF versus HFpEFNot applicable Not selected 
HFrEF versus HFpEFNot applicable Not selected 
LA size ≥ 40 mmNot selected Not selected 
E/e′ ratio ≥ 15Not selected 1.47 (1.01–2.16)0.047
  1. Covariates were age ≥ 65 years, sex, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2, CHADS-VASc ≥ 2, AF pattern, heart rate ≥ 100 bpm, and parameters of echocardiography and electrocardiography
  2. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, ECG electrocardiography, EF ejection fraction, HF heart failure, LA left atrium, OR odds ratio, QTc corrected QT, PAF paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, PeAF persistent atrial fibrillation, PmAF permanent atrial fibrillation