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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Factors predicting poor anticoagulant control on warfarin in a Thai population with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF): the ACAChE score

  All patient (n = 864)
n (%) |Mean ± SD
TTR ≥ 65% (n = 227)
n (%) |Mean ± SD
TTR < 65% (n = 637)
n (%) |Mean ± SD
p value1
Age < 75 years‡ 428 (49.54) 130 (57.27) 298 (46.78) 0.007‡
Mean Age (years) 73.6 ± 11.58 72.25 ± 11.96 74.08 ± 11.41 0.040‡
Female 447 (51.74) 119 (52.42) 328 (51.49) 0.809
BMI (kg/m2) 25.28 ± 8.54 26.44 ± 14.4 24.86 ± 4.96 0.016‡
Education 0.120
Primary or no 432 (50) 102 (44.93) 330 (51.81)  
Secondary 241 (27.89) 65 (28.63) 176 (27.63)  
Tertiary or higher 191 (22.11) 60 (26.43) 131 (20.57)  
Occupation 0.219
Government/state enterprises 145 (16.78) 48 (21.15) 97 (15.23)  
Employee 171 (19.79) 45 (19.82) 126 (19.78)  
Business 127 (14.7) 31 (13.66) 96 (15.07)  
Others 421 (48.73) 103 (45.37) 318 (49.92)  
Smoking 0.736
Non-smoker 595 (68.87) 152 (66.96) 443 (69.54)  
Current smoker 46 (5.32) 12 (5.29) 34 (5.34)  
Ex-smoker 223 (25.81) 63 (27.75) 160 (25.12)  
Alcohol 0.309
Non-drink 635 (73.5) 163 (71.81) 472 (74.1)  
Current drink 20 (2.31) 3 (1.32) 17 (2.67)  
Ex-drink 209 (24.19) 61 (26.87) 148 (23.23)  
Herbal use 36 (4.17) 8 (3.52) 28 (4.4) 0.573
Hypertension 682 (78.94) 181 (79.74) 501 (78.65) 0.730
Diabetes mellitus 340 (39.44) 75 (33.19) 265 (41.67) 0.025‡
Dyslipidemia 463 (53.59) 112 (49.34) 351 (55.1) 0.135
Coronary artery disease 204 (23.61) 47 (20.7) 157 (24.65) 0.230
Peripheral arterial disease 38 (4.4) 12 (5.29) 26 (4.08) 0.447
Heart failure 129 (14.93) 20 (8.81) 109 (17.11) 0.003‡
Transient ischemia attack 78 (9.04) 17 (7.49) 61 (9.59) 0.343
Hepatic impairment 157 (18.17) 30 (13.22) 127 (19.94) 0.024
CKD (mean GFR ml/min/1.73 m2) 64.18 ± 23.44 68.64 ± 20.3 62.58 ± 24.28 < 0.001‡
CKD (GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) 335 (38.77) 61 (26.87) 274 (43.01) < 0.001‡
CKD (GFR < 50 ml/min/1.73 m2) 222 (25.69) 37 (16.3) 185 (29.04) < 0.001‡
Thrombosis related 0.053
Systemic emboli 95 (11.01) 22 (9.69) 73 (11.48)  
Myocardial infarction 72 (8.34) 11 (4.85) 61 (9.59)  
Bleeding     0.011‡
Major bleeding 18 (2.09) 4 (1.76) 14 (2.21)  
Minor bleeding 54 (6.27) 5 (2.2) 49 (7.73)  
LVEF (%) 59.18 ± 14.81 61.94 ± 12.64 58.2 ± 15.4 < 0.001‡
LVEF < 40% 99 (11.47) 14 (6.19) 85 (13.34) 0.004‡
Cordarone 55 (6.37) 12 (5.29) 43 (6.76) 0.435
Flecainide 2 (0.23) 0 (0) 2 (0.31) 1.000
Digoxin 104 (12.04) 26 (11.45) 78 (12.24) 0.753
Betablocker 590 (68.29) 161 (70.93) 429 (67.35) 0.320
Non-dihydropyridine CCB 11 (1.27) 0 (0) 11 (1.73) 0.076
Dihydropyridine CCB 214 (24.8) 52 (22.91) 162 (25.47) 0.442
Antiplatelet 121 (14) 11 (4.85) 110 (17.27) 0.001‡
Warfarin (mg/week) 18.54 ± 7.74 19.72 ± 8.31 18.12 ± 7.49 0.007‡
Drug interaction 524 (60.86) 142 (62.83) 382 (60.16) 0.479
INR measurement 20.38 ± 14.44 18.73 ± 11.21 20.96 ± 15.39 0.021‡
Mean TTR 48.11 ± 25.18 78.48 ± 10.65 36.5 ± 18.58 < 0.001‡
SAME TT2R2 score 0.135
2 216 (25) 65 (28.63) 151 (23.7)  
3 365 (42.25) 100 (44.05) 265 (41.6)  
4 248 (28.7) 52 (22.91) 196 (30.77)  
≥ 5 35 (4.05) 10 (4.41) 25 (3.92)  
Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score 3.94 ± 1.62 3.59 ± 1.63 4.06 ± 1.60 < 0.001‡
Mean HASBLED score 2.77 ± 1.09 1.95 ± 0.97 3.06 ± 0.97 < 0.001‡
HASBLED score < 3 320 (37.04) 162 (71.37) 158 (24.8) < 0.001‡
  1. 1p value for comparison between patients with TTR ≥ 65% and TTR < 65%
  2. p value < 0.05
  3. Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; CKD: Chronic kidney disease; LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction; CCB: Calcium channel blocker; INR: International normalized ratio