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Table 5 Cox proportional hazard model for rhythm outcome (recurrence at 1 year)

From: Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in Korea: results from the Korean Heart Rhythm Society Ablation Registry for Atrial Fibrillation (KARA)

Variable Unadjusted hazard ratio Adjusted hazard ratio
HR 95% CI P value HR 95% CI P value
Age
 < 60 1.000 Reference 1.000 Reference
 60–69 0.889 0.735–1.076 0.227 0.846 0.697–1.026 0.089
 > 70 0.939 0.731–1.206 0.621 0.854 0.661–1.105 0.230
Female (vs. male) 0.940 0.769–1.147 0.541 1.095 0.865–1.310 0.555
Valvular heart disease1 2.459 1.780–3.396  < 0.001 1.602 1.139–2.253 0.007
LV EF (by 1%) 0.985 0.976–0.995 0.002 0.999 0.989–1.009 0.794
LAD (by 1 mm) 1.055 1.042–1.069  < 0.001 1.039 1.024–1.053  < 0.001
Ablation indication
 Paroxysmal AF 1.000 Reference 1.000 Reference  
 Persistent AF 1.921 1.589–2.324  < 0.001 1.426 1.152–1.764 0.001
 Redo ablation 1.321 0.972–1.794 0.075 1.220 0.890–1.600 0.216
PVI only (vs. additional NPV ablation)2 1.274 1.064–1.526 0.009 1.337 1.104–1.619 0.003
Mode of AF termination
 Initial SR3 1.000 Reference 1.000 Reference  
 By PVI 1.106 0.817–1.496 0.515 0.973 0.716–1.324 0.863
 By NPV ablation 1.829 1.363–2.453  < 0.001 1.581 1.157–2.160 0.004
 By DCC4 1.768 1.411–2.215  < 0.001 1.243 0.966–1.600 0.090
 Not terminated 2.822 2.166–3.678  < 0.001 1.940 1.459–2.579  < 0.001
AF induction test5
 No induction 1.000 Reference 1.000 Reference  
 AF/AT 0.920 0.727–1.165 0.489 0.954 0.751–1.213 0.702
 Not done 1.221 1.003–1.486 0.046 1.106 0.898–1.362 0.342
  1. 1Valvular heart disease is defined as stenosis or regurgitation of any valve which severity was moderate or severe
  2. 2NPV ablation is defined as any ablation other than pulmonary vein isolation
  3. 3It is defined as the rhythm state before the first energy delivery of the procedure
  4. 4It is categorized when cardioversion was performed after the first energy delivery of the procedure
  5. 5Induction of AF was usually performed by atrial burst pacing with isoproterenol infusion. Pacing protocol and isoproterenol dose were left to the operator's discretion
  6. AF, atrial fibrillation; AT, atrial tachycardia; CI, confidence interval; DCC, direct current cardioversion; EF, ejection fraction; HR, hazard ratio; LAD, left atrial diameter; LV, left ventricle; NPV, non-pulmonary vein; PVI, pulmonary vein isolation; SR, sinus rhythm